Memorial of the parishes of Greensted-Budworth
Memorial of the parishes of Greensted-Budworth, Chipping Ongar and High Laver, with an account of the families of Cleeve and Budworth, By Philip John Budworth
Essex in the course of the last four centuries has had six historians, (not to mention writers on local districts) whose works are more or less useful for information on typography and family history.
1. Norden, who wrote in 1594, but whose work is little more than a Catalogue of places and names as they existed in his time, mentions Greensted Hall as the seat of William Brown, an error on his part (as hereafter shewn,) for William Bourne.
2. The Revevrend Thomas Cox, in the history of Essex, which formed part of his Magna Britannia, and was published in 1720, mentions Greensted Hall as the residence of my ancestor Mr. Cleeve, who had bought the estate about 30 years previous to his death.
3. We now arrive at the Reverend Nathaniel Salmon’s History of Essex, (the first worthy of that name, although death prevented him from completing it) which was published in 1740. Of Greensted he says, “One Mr. Gulton (a mistake for Hulson) enjoyed this estate since and sold it to Mr. Alexander Cleeve, Citizen of London, whose widow, Mrs. Anne Cleeve is present possessor: Mr. Cleeve has left issue”.
4. The Reverend Philip Morant published a complete History of Essex, in 1768, partly founded upon Salmon’s previous work, and which remains the most valuable History of the County, although
5. The History of Essex, by a Gentleman, published in 1771: and
6. Coller’s Peoples History of Essex, published in 1862, have much merit in particular branches, and in bringing down tlie History of the County to their respective dates.
It is however, from Salmon and Morant that I compile and arrange the history of the earlier possessors of the estate up to the time that it was purchased by my ancestor Mr. Cleeve, in 1695.
In Edward the Confessors reign, Greensted was held for a manor and two hides, by Gotild but at the time of the Survey Hamo Dapifer was possessed of it, and died in 1107. His niece Isabel, daughter of Robert Fitz Hainan, inherited her uncle’s estates, and married Robert, illegitimate son of Henry 1st. He became in her right Earl of Gloucester, and died in 1147. Whether King Stephen took this estate from him is not clearly ascertained, but Stephens third son William, the Earl of Mortagne and Surrey gave Greensted and Chipping Ongar to Richard de Lucy, Lord of Diss in Norfolk, who was Lieutenant of the kingdom during Henry 2nd absence in Normandy, in 1166. This Richard died in 1179, and there appears some doubt whether Maud de Lucy who was given by King Jolm in marriage to Richard de Riparis or Rivers, in 1213, was his daughter or grandaughter.
After having remained in the possession of the Rivers family till the commencement of 1300, this estate came into the hands of William de la Hay, but in what manner does not appear, nor how it passed from them into those of Ralph, Earl of Stafford. Under this family it was held with very numerous manors in Essex, by Robert Bouehier, who possessed it at the time of his death, in 1349. Here for the first time since the Conquest there was a permanency in the tenure of Greensted, for it remained in the Bouehier family during a space of two centuries. Henry Bouehier the last Earl of Essex of this family, who died in 1540, (killed by a fall from his horse) was possessed of it. It was then carried in marriage by his only daughter and heir Anne to William Lord Parr, afterwards created Marquis of Northampton, and by this marriage, which appears to have been an unfortunate one, the decay of the Bouehier family was brought about.
Anne, the last of this branch of the Bouchiers, died in 1570, but in 1548 the dissipation of the Bouehier estates had begun, and in that year Greensted passed into the hands of (10) Sir William Rich, who died in 1566, and shortly afterwards, (? 1593) it became the property of William Bourne who also owned part or the whole of the adjoining parish of Bobbingworth, and is inserted by Norden (under the misprint of William Brown,) as the possessor in 1594.
At the beginning of the 17th century, a family named Young appear to have retained it for about forty years, and then to have sold it (circa 1661) to a person called by Morant, Gulton but whose real name was Robert Hulson, who held it until 1695.
Thus from the time of Edward the Confessor to the close of the 17th century, or about 650 years this manor and estate appears to have passed through the hands of thirteen distinct families, giving an average ownership of fifty years to each of them.
Up to this period (1695) I am indebted to the County historians to which I have already referred, since although I have in my possession deeds of as early a date as 1539, they merely relate to small portions of the estate, and are insufficient to assist in a connected account of it. Subsequently however, to Mr. Cleeve’s purchase of Greensted Hall and Manor, together with the remainder of the parish, the whole of the deeds and conveyances are in my hands, and from them and other sources I have extracted and arranged the following particulars : ln the year 1695, Alexander Cleeve, Citizen of London, and Pewterer, purchased the estate of Greensted Hall, from the last mentioned Robert Hulson and others having an interest in the sale, together with the Advowson of the living.
It may serve to carry the readers mind back to the lapses of time since this took place, if 1 add that in this year the Duke of Berwick was organizing a force to replace James the 2nd on the throne of England, William the 3rd was engaged in the siege of Namur, and the Parliament was laboriously legislating to bring down the current value of a guinea from thirty shillings to twenty and sixpence.
I could wish that some of the private papers of Alexander Cleeve had fallen into my possession, so that I might have constructed his biography from materials less slender than wills and tombstone inscriptions afford me. He was undoubtedly born in 1666, the year of the great fire of London, and as at the time he purchased Greensted, his age was only twenty-nine, it is to be inferred that he must have inherited a large fortune from his father, (of whom I can discover no trace) since by that age he could hardly have accumulated it for himself. John Cleeve, of St. Giles in the Fields, and of Friern Barnet, Esquire, may possibly have been his brother, since I find him associated with Alexander in several deeds of purchase, and the arms upon his fine mural monument in the pleasantly situated Church of Friern Barnet, are the same as those on Philippa Cleeve’s tomb, in Greensted Churchyard, (although in the former instance impaled with his wile’s arms) namely, argent, on a fesse, between three foxes’ heads erased as many mullets or: impaling argent a bend, gules.
The inscription is — To the memory of John Cleeve, Esq., late of tins Parish, who departed this life Nov. 20, 1825. Also of Ann Cleeve, relict of the above said, who departed this life January, 6, 1739. Likewise the bodies of Thomas and Mary Cleeve, their son and daughter, whose remains all lio near this monument, under a black marble gravestone.
Before 1690 Alexander Cleeve was married to Mary the daughter of— Duffield, by whom he had four sons, namely, Alexander, born 1690, died 1759, John, born 1701, died 1777. Benjamin, born 1706, died 1761 And Simon, date of birth and death unknown, but the latter previous to 1751.
Of the birth, death, and place of interment of this his first wife, I can find no record, but the date of her death must have been after the year 1706, when Benjamin was born, and before 1712, when he married for the second time. She cannot therefore, have been that “Mary Cleeve” recorded in the Parish Register, of Greensted, as “buried in Wooling, Sep. 1st, 1697,” unless this date could have been recorded in error for 1707.
In 1712, a deed of settlement, in my possession, shews Alexander Cleeve to have married for his second wife, Ann, daughter and heiress of John Bouehier, who brought him the manor and estate of Vaux, in the parish of Otten Belchamp, Essex, and upon whom he settled as her dower the manor and lands of Greensted Hall.
It is not one of the least extraordinary incidents in the history of this Parish, that Ann Bouehier descended from Thomas Bouehier, brother of Henry, 1st Earl of Essex of that name, to whom belonged the manor of Greensted, with many others in the County, among which was the estate of Otten Belchamp, which therefore would appear to have passed to the younger branch, and thus to have escaped the wreck of the other portions made by the Marquis of Northampton.
By this Ann, his second wife, Alexander Cleeve had seven children, two sons and five daughters, Bouehier (b. , d. 1760.) Richard (b. 1721, d. 1765.) Philippa (b. 1713, d. 1728,) who was the only one of his children buried at Greensted. Jane, my great-grandmother, (b. 1716, d. 1765.) (5) Ann (b. d. ) Mary (b. d. ) and Elizabeth (b. d. ) Of these eleven sons and daughters to whom I shall refer more particularly hereafter, who all with the exception of Philippa, reached maturity, and most of whom were married, few children appear to have survived, and only to have reached a fourth generation in the descendants of Jane and Richard.
Soon after Alexander Cleeve’s purchase of Greensted Hall, he recorded his possession by placing a sun dial on the S. W. gable of the house, which remains in situ to the present day. It bears his initials and those of his first wife, (Cleeve, Alexander, Mary,) and the date 1698. In the same year, he gave a pulpit, with 1698 inscribed upon it, which is also in existence, to the Church.
Having in 1695, thus acquired possession of about a moiety of the Parish, together with the advowson of the living, he continued his purchases until he had completed his ownership cf the remainder, extending them also into the adjoining parishes of Chipping Ongar, High Ongar, Bobbingworth, and Stanford Rivers.
I cannot find the exact date at which he alienated the Rectory and Advowson of the Parish to the profit of the Senior Curate of Aldgate for the time being, on condition of his being unmarried when the vacancy in the living occurs ; but it seems probable that it was after the year 1720, since at that date Cox makes the patronage still in his hands.
For more than thirty years after his purchase, Mr, Cleeve seems to have contemplated the transmission of the estate entire to his family, since in 1728, Philippa, the eldest child of his second marriage dying, was interred here, in a vault of no small importance ; but he having, iu 1729, purchased the Advowson of High Liver, to which, in 1734, he presented John his second son by the fust marriage he appears to have elected this churchyard to be his own place of burial and thither for many years afterwards successive members of his family were brought to lie around him, while Philippa, two of his gran daughters, and possibly his first wife were the only ones destined to rest in the churchyard at Greensted, until more than a century and a half had passed away.
We may with reason imagine Alexander Cleeve at the head of that trade in which he took so much pride, that he causes it always to be inscribed in connection with his name and citizenship, surrounded by his six sons, three of whom were like himself Pewterers, two Merchants, and the remaining one Rector of High Laver ; a man of large possessions in London, and two estates in Essex, to have occupied no unimportant position among the citizens of London. Hence I more especially regret that no portrait of him is to my knowledge extant, nor have I any of his letters to throw light upon his person and character. As a consistent Tory 1 am however pleased to find from examination of Poll books for a City of London Election, in 1710, nnd Essex in 1734, that he is recorded as voting for Heathcote, Withers, Hoare, and Newland in the former instance ; and Sir Robert Abdy and W, Bramston in the latter.
On the 11 th of April, 1739, Alexander Cleeve died at the age of 72 years, and was buried at High Laver, His widow survived him and resided for nearly twelve years after his death at Greensted Hall, dying on the 22nd January, 1750, aged 66 years. By the settlement of her late husband Greensted Hall and the Manor Estate were hers for life, and afterwards to be sold and the proceeds divided among their children.
Here then, after a possession of fifty-seven years, a fresh disintegration of the ownership of this parish began. To John Cleeve, Rector of High Laver, was bequeathed New House Farm, to Jane Velley and Ann Cleeve, Hardings aud Repentance, to Mary Hatt the Lodge Farm ; Richard nnd Elizabeth succeeded to the Otten and Walter Belchamp Estate, derived from their mother. Alexander and Bouehier inherited houses in Cornhill, Broad Street, the Strand, and other parts of London ; while Simon and Benjamin having had no real property left them, received larger proportionate sums in money.
At this point I will trace the history of the ten surviving children of Alexander Cleeve, so far as I have been able to collect any information.
1. Alexander, born 1690, died 1759. I have been unable to discover the surname of his wife, but he must have married early, as the parish Register of Greensted contains these two entries—1 * Ann, the daughter of Mr. Alexander and Mrs. Elizabeth Cleeve, an infant was buried Jan. 19, 1707,” and “Margaret, daughter of the same was buried Sep. 21, 1709.” I can find no mention of any further children, nor of the death or place of interment of his wife, nor have I been able to discover his will. At the time of his Mother-in-law’s death, he appears to have resided with his brother John, since in the deed of sale of Greensted he is described as of High Laver.
2. John, born 1701, died 1777. He was for 43 years rector of High Laver, and died unmarried, bequeathing nearly the whole of his estates in Essex, Gloucestershire, and Berkshire to his nephew Thomas Velley, the brother of my great-grandmother.
3. Benjamin, born 1706, died 1761. Of Broad Street, London, Merchant. He married Maria Elderton, who survived him only 3 years. He appears to have had no children, and tn his will bequeathed all his property to his wife, but a very singular codicil is added and proved. It is in the shape of a letter to his sister-in-law, Margaret Elderton, commences ” Dear Peggy,” and purports that after his wife’s death he bequeaths the reversion of his estate to her, less ,£1000, to be divided among John and Richard, Jane and Elizabeth Cleeve, and Messrs. Halt and Evans, “thus I intend to keep up in a family a real harmony, and those who swerve from it are not entitled to share. Trade is uncertain* bad debts are sure, small it may be, but welcome they are.”
4. Simon, date and place either of birth or death not ascertained, but described in various deeds as a merchant of Oporto, where he possibly may have died. In 1752 he is stated in the deed of sale of Greensted Hall to be already dead.
We now arrive at the children by the second wife, and first to
5. Bouehier, born died 1760. Whether from inheritance, good fortune iu trade, or a lucky marriage, it is certain that Bouehier Cleeve’s position in life far surpassed that of any of his brothers. Who his wife was I have not ascertained, but he had by her only one surviving child. He would appear to have purchased a large estate in Kent, at and about Foots Cray. Ireland in his History of Kent, vol. 4, p. 524. says, “Foots Cray Place is a seat erected on that part of the demesnes of the manor of Foots Cray, sold by Sir Francis Walsingham to John Ellis, whence this estate passed to one Limen and Smith, where it remained till the heirs of George Smith alienated it to Bouehier Cleeve, of London. He caused the old mansion to be taken down, and erected northward of the spot an elegant freestone building, resembling that of the Karl of Westmoreland, at Mere worth, who designed the structure after one of Palladio on the Bacchiglione, near Venice. He also enclosed a park, which he embellished with beautiful plantations, and a canal that flows through the grounds. This seat commands a most extensive and diversified prospect.”
1 visited Foots Cray Place, on April 26th, lS76,and found it in exactly the same state as when built for Bouehier Cleeve. Four porticoes, each surmounted by a lofty tympanum, face the four points of the compass, in the centre of each face of the building, and these are approached on three sides by flights of steps. A central hall, surmounted by a dome from which it is lighted, extends to the entire height of the structure, and is surrounded by a gallery. On one side of the Hall is the staircase, and on the three remaining ones the library, the drawing and dining rooms, of which the first is singularly handsome. Flanking the entrance lobby are two smaller rooms. The offices are on the basement. In front of the library is a terrace walk over-hanging the grounds, which are undulating and well timbered, and through which the canal or river mentioned by Hasted flows.
And ante, “Mr. Edward Townsend, of Brockley, joined with his wife in the sale of a portion of the demesne lands to Bouehier Cleeve, Esq., to enlarge his possessions at Foots Cray Place. Bouehier Cleeve above mentioned died possessing the estate in 1760, leaving by Elizabeth his wife, who died in 1761, one daughter Elizabeth, who in 1765 conveyed this seat with other large possessions to Sir George Yonge, Hart. In 1772 they joined in the sale of Foots Cray Place, to Benjamin Harenc, Esq., Sheriff of the County, in 1777.”
Hasted also in his History of Kent, vol. 1, p. 303, says, under the head of Farningham Parish:
“John Fullarton sold the remaining part of this estate, consisting of Eglantine Farm, the Folly, and other lauds adjacent to it, together with the lease of the Rectory, in 1756 to Bouehier Cleeve, of Foots Cray Place, in this County, Esquire, who died seized of it in 1760, leaving an only daughter and heir Elizabeth since married to Sir George Yonge, of Escott, in Devonshire, Bart.”
The extent of this estate may be imagined from that part of Bouehier Cleeve*s will, in which he authorizes his trustees to mark 6200 of his finest oaks which may be felled by his wife upon her entering into a bond to pay their daughter Elizabeth £20,000 on the day of her marriage.
At Foots Cray Place, Bouehier Cleeve had the greatest part of his collection of pictures, which in his will under certain contingencies he authorizes to be sold, not by “public auction, but offered to some person of quality, for a sum not less than £10,000.” It was this collection which excites the indignation of Horace Walpole at the extravagance of the age, when he writes thus to Sir Horace Mann, (Feb. 9, 1758.) ” But one glaring extravagance is the constant high price given for pictures. There is a pewterer, one Cleeve, who some time ago gave one thousand pounds for four very small Dutch pictures.” Walpol’s Correspondence vol. 3f p . 242.
Bouehier Cleeve could not have been more than 48 at the time of his death, in 1760, probably less. The place of his interment I have been unable to discover.
It is curious to speculate whether had he survived the marriage of his daughter, which took place in 1765, he would have selected for her a less reckless if less high placed son-in law than Sir George Yonge, who in the end dissipated all his Father-in-law’s estate as well as his own. For Sir George Yonge’s character we must again go back to Horace Walpole and the Editor of his Memoirs of the Reign of George 3rd, vol. 2, p.p. 39, 40.
” Sir George Yonge, Bart., was the only surviving son of Sir William Yonge, the eloquent and well known supporter of Sir Robert Walpole, He was appointed Secretary at War, in Lord Shelburne’s administration, and subsequently became Master of the Mint. His last office was that of Governor of the Cape of Good Hope. He had many of his Father’s parts as well as failings, being kind, persuasive, industrious, reckless, scheming, aud dissipated. His last years were embittered by the failure of a speculation into which he had entered in the neighbourhood of honiton, which town he had long represented in Parliament. He died at an advanced age, at the beginning of the present century, and having no children the baronetcy became extinct, ln 1794 he sold his seat in Devonshire, Escot House, (where five years previously he had entertained George the Third, Queen Charlotte, and three of the Royal Princesses,) to Sir John Kennaway, Bart.” Among my family papers are letters of Sir George shewing him to have been alimi appeteus suiprofmus. Burke in the Extinct Baronetcies is somewhat more precise as to dates, thus—
The Rt. Hcnble. Sir George Yonge, of Culleton, M.lVfor Uoniton, from 1754 to 17D4, who filled successively the appointments of Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, of Secretary at War, Master of the Mint, and Governor General of the Cape of Good Hope. He married in 1765, Elizabeth daughter and heir of Bouehier Cleeve, Esq., of Foots Cray, in Kent, but died sine prole in 1810, when tlie baronetcy (created in 1661) became extinct.
6. Richard, (born 1721 d. 1765.) His career is involved in some obscurity from my not having been able to discover his will. He was married, and died at the age of 44. in 1776 his widow was still living. They had two daughters Sophia and Mary. Mary appears to have died unmarried, but Sophia married Sir Herbert Croft, Bart., by which marriage three daughters survived, who all died unmarried. Two of these are among my earliest recollections; they were then living in a house on llib Royal Terrace, at Southend, but 1 believe afterwards went to reside and ended their days in Wiltshire. Burke says under the family of Croft, ” Sir Herbert, in holy orders, B.D,, 2nd son of the 1st baronet, married Sophia dau. and co-heir of Richard Cleeve, Esq.. and had 3 daughters, Sophia who died 10th June, 1857, Mary Ann who died 17th August, 1859, and Elizabeth also deca . Sir Herbert dying without male issue, 25 April, 1816, the title devolved upon his brother.”
Sir Herbert’s wife is buried in Hendon Churchyard. Lysons says, “In Hendon Churchyard is buried Sophia, wife of the Rev. Sir Herbert Croft, and co-heir of Richard Cleeve, Esq., died 1792.”
7. Philippa, (born 1713, died 1728,) buried in the vault at Greensted. 8. Jane, (born 1716, died 1765,) married 173 , to the Rev. Thomas Velley, Rector of Chipping Ongar and Bobbingworth, who died in 1750.
Their children were— Alexander, b. May, 1740, d. April 15, 1746. Thomas, b. April 1742, d. 1743. Ann, b. Feb. 17, 1743. Mary b. Feb. 17, 1743, Thomas, b. May 15, 1748.
Of these, Alexander, the first Thomas, and Ann died young. Mary, (my grandmother,) and the second Thomas only surviving to maturity. Of my grandmother I shall speak later, but of Thomas Velley I may now say that he took his degree at Oxford, but did not adopt any profession. He subsequently became Col. of the Berkshire Militia, but resided in Gloucestershire. He married and left one son, Charles Hatt Velley, and three daughters, one of whom married, but died without children, the son and remaining daughters died unmarried. Charles Hatt Velley the son died in Dec, 1873, at the advanced age of 87 years. Upon him were accumulated the combined large estates or his Father, John Cleeve, and Charles Hatt to which in the course of a long and retired life he had added largely, and with tlie whole of which he enriched one of his servants.
9. Ann, (b. d, ) 1 neither find the date of her birth or death, or her place of interment. She died unmarried, but was alive so late as August 29th, 1776, the date of John Cieeve’s will as he then makes his sisters Ann Cleeve, Mary Hatt, Elizabeth Evans, and his nephew, Thomas Velley residuary legatees.
10. Mary, (b. d. ) married in 1748, to Charles Hatt, of Longworth, in the County of Berks., Esq., first described as of Brent Ely Hall, in the County of Suffolk. Although I have no positive information, it appears certain that they had no surviving children, since Charles Hatt Velley inherited the estates of his uncle-in-law and godfather, and to my own Father was bequeathed his plate, part of which was unfortunately sold, but some remains in my possession.
11. (and last.) Elizabeth, (b. d. ) married to Samuel Evans, of Shelley House, Ongar, Esq,, v. Moulmein’s History of Essex, vol. 3, p. 365. So far as I know they had no surviving children, but upon this head 1 have been unable to gather any information.
On the 25th April, 1752, Greensted Hall was purchased by David Rebotier, of London, Merchant. The conveyance to him is signed by the nine surviving children of Alexander Cleeve, and one son-in-law, Charles Hatt, and the respective widows of Benjamin and Bouehier Cleeve.
The tenure of the Rebotier family w r as not a long one. Beginning in 1752, it ceased iu 1771. David Rebotier died in 1769, and his will was proved in April, 1769. By it he directs his interment to take place by the body of his wife, in Greensted Churchyard, where their tomb (which I caused to be repaired in 1864) still exists, and the estate to be sold, and the proceeds divided, subject to a previous offer of purchase at a determined price, to his son Charles, and his daughter Esther successively.
Neither of these seem to have been able or willing to purchase, although in the ” History of Essex, by a Gentleman,” published shortly after Mr. Rebotiers decease, a view of the HaU appears, and is described as the seat of Charles Rebotier.
On Dec. 14, 1771, Charles and Esther Rebotier jointly conveyed the manor estate to John Redman, described as of Mile End, in the parish of St, Dunstan, Middlesex, who made Greensted his country residence till the time of his death, in Sept, 1798.
While I have to regret, especially for the purposes of this work, that I am possessed of few documents which throw any light upon the personal character of those earlier members of my own family, who were settled at Greensted, I have been fortunate enough to find a folio volume, in which Mr, Johu Redman not only kept (though in a desultory manner) his accounts, but also entered from time to time such observations, statistical, political, and theological as happened to lie near his heart. One of these affords some information as to the condition of Greensted Hall a hundred years ago, and others as well as portions of his will are amusing enough to deserve transcription and a place here.
No. 1. Extract from folio as to the condition of Greensted Hall, in the year 1783.
“The Mansion has 4 principal property’s of water, market, Church and road, is complete with every out-door as well as in-door convenience, and now made very compact, and entirely detached from tho Farm.”
“The Capital Alteration of making new roads and footways with the other folios Improvements have been the work of some years, and cost upwards of £1000. A brick arch to drain from Cellar, 10 feet deep; a stable yard enclosed, a horse pond, a common stable holds 4 horses, a Carpenters’ shop, a corn chamber, with a chaff bin, a new Garden for vegetables, and tool house near at hand, planted with fruit trees. A woodhouse near kitchen door. A convenient piece of ground for foddering horses very safe and at a proper distance, a large Hay barn, a Cart house, Sheds with straw yards in bad weather. Two horse ponds, a considerable length of substantial saw’d posts and rails in the Lawn, a new approach to the House with, a gravel causeway from the Common road, and a cottage at tho entrance. Tho buildings of tho Farm well repaired, 100 guineas expended for the Barn alone, including £40 for the floor. A back road at the Boarded Gate to bring in coals, wood, and sand, a new door to Kitchen. In many respects the value of the place increased by the charge and expenses being diminished.”
At this time the Rev. John Harris was Rector of the parish, and if we are to accept the following extract as a correct statement, the atmosphere of Greensted would seem but little fitted for the development of aimable clerical qualities even in the eighteenth century.
Extract No. 2. As to Parson Harris.
“Parson Harris having demanded an arbitrary and undue Tythe for the pts. of Woodland which ho strove to establish as a Precedent, It was after much Altercation, Evasion, and Jesuitical shufling on the part of that Old Church Leech, agreed to be left to Arbitration, On 16th Feb, 86, Mr. Crompton informs by Letter that the Arbitrator, Mr, Crabb, a very reputable neighbour bad finally settled this mighty affair, at 0 6 9 per year.”
The next extract refers to Tyler’s Hall, in the Parish of Upminster. Extract No. 3.
“Memo, this 20th January, 1702. It is certain that the old rent of this farm was ninety pounds per annum, the Family Apartment being always reserved in hand, which I improved at the expense of £1000. (Qy.) much against my inclination it was left, that is the whole of my house, to Skinner at 100 guineas per year. He let Lodgings to tho Camp people during the accursed Scotch Mad Brained American War. Skinner became so reduced that he was an object of compassion. Six Guineas, and five guineas, and £25 I was out of pocket. The Farm poisoned with Weeds, Twitch, Kobbed of the Wood, and a General Devastation appeared.”
“The land and Farm End was then left at a low under rent for ten years.”
From Mr. Redman’s Folio volume I will now pass to his will, from which 1 extract the following passages:
“The last will of John Redman, Citizen of the world, of Upn inster in Essex My body to be buried in the ground in Bunhill fields where my grandfather, Captain Johu Redman of the Navy, in Queen Anne’s reign, lies interred. My grave to be ten feet deep, neither gravestone, attachment, escutcheon, mutes, nor porters at the door, to be performed at seven o’clock in the morning and my wine to be drank on the premises or to be shared by and between my four executors. Tylehurst Lodge Farm. I devise to the eldest son of my second cousin, Mr. Benjamin Branfill, on condition that he the eldest son takes the name of Redman, or to his second or third son if the others decline it. It is hereby enjoined to the Branfills to keep the Owners Apartment and land in hand to be a check on Shufling Sharping tenants, who are much disposed to impoverish the land Having provided handsomely for my daughter (Mary Smith Ord) on her marriage (with Craven Ord of the Cursetors Office, London,) I hereby bequeath to her children born or to be born (the eldest son excepted whose father will provide for him) the sum of two thousand pounds to each of them at the age of one and twenty, for which purpose I bequeath all my valuable estates at Greensted and Ongar late Rebotiers, Holding my Executors in such esteem I desire them to pay all the Legacies without the wicked swindling, base imposition of Stamps that smell of blood and carnage ….To Mr. French, of Harpur Street….. a set of Tom Paines Rights of Man bound with Common Sense, with the answers intended by the longheads of the law, the fatheads of the Church, and the wiseheads of an insolent usurping aristocracy. To that valuable friend to his Country in the worst of times Charles For, Member for Westminster 500 Guineas, To each of the daughters of Home Tooke 500 pounds.”
In a subsequent Codicil he adds:
“I desire and direct my Executors to keep my dwelling house on for at least a year after my decease, and also the same with my house in Essex, and I do recommend them to visit Greensted Hall, at least six times in that year, and to stop from Saturday to Monday morning, to hire a light coach and an able pair of horses, set out betimes, and breakfast on the road, alternately to take one of their family’s that each corner may be filled to help drink out the wine in the Vault. The same to be observed, in Hatton Garden. Exors to order a dinner for themselves half-score times, to consult and consider the business they have in hand and not to spare the wine in that cellar, and the remainder at last to be divided between them and carried to their respective houses.”
The body of this curious will is dated July 25th, 1797, and the last of the Codicils is dated May 18th, 1798. In the folio volume I find no entry in Mr. Redman’s hand writing subsequent to 1797, but the following appears in pencil and marks the time of his death:
“29th Sept’ 1707, Greensted Hall Farm This half-years rent was reed by Mr. Redman, but was nob brought to this acc. After this time the Estate was given to me, for the benefit of my children as by his will.”
Although no signature is appended the handwriting is that of Mr. Craven Ord, above alluded to in the will, and the accession of that family to the ownership of Greensted is thus established, for although Mr. Redman had a son John, bom 18th Novr, 1773, he had predeceased his Father.
A legend however exists that Mr. Redman, fearful lest his son should ruin the estate by excess of hospitality, caused the great dining room which existed on the north side of the present Hall to be demolished, in order to lessen his son’s facilities of entertaining on a large scale, but he makes no mention of this act in the folio volume.
Craven Ord, described on the tomb in Greensted Churchyard as ” F. R. S. and F. A. S., of the King’s Remembrances Office in the Court of Exchequer, born in 1756, died January. 29,1832″ was a man of some distinction in letters as an Antiquarian. It appears that during the time of the Great War when timber brought a very high price, he was able to cut down so large a quantity on the Greensted Estate as to satisfy the portions of his younger children, under Mr. Redman’s will, and leave the estate entire at his own death to his eldest son, the Rev. Craven Ord, who resided as possessor of Greensted for a brief space after Ins Father’s death, but quitted it before his own which took place in the Isle of Wight, Dec. 14th, 1836. His own large family had now to be provided for, and on the 23rd June, 1837, the Estate was put up for sale at the Auction Mart, but bought in, and after some negotiation bought on the 29th September, for my Father, the Rev, Philip Budworth, 85 years after it had been sold by the Executors of his Great-grandfather, (Alexander Cleeve,) in 1752.
In 1843 New House Farm, which had been sold by the Executors of John Cleeve in 1778 and had become the property of Mr. John Sympson Jessopp, was purchased for my Father, and in 18G7, I repurchased the Lodge Farm from the representatives of Mrs. Holbrook, and thus regained possession of the former Cleeve Estate, comprising, with the exception of a few acres belonging to Mrs, William Smith, and Mr. Cure, the entire parish.
Having thus sketched the connection of the Cleeve branch of my family with Greensted, I now give such particulars as I have been able to obtain respecting my paternal ancestors from the time of my great grandfather, who was I believe the first of his family in any way connected with Essex.
His Father and Grandfather, heads of a Cheshire family of considerable antiquity, appear to have suffered heavily from the share they successively took in the risings of 1715 and 1745, and my great-grandfather was left to fight his way through life as he best could : This had been already the case with the younger brother of his Father, the Rev. William Rudworth, who was in 1736 Head Master of Brewood School, in Staffordshire, and to whom Dr, Hurd, Bishop of Worcester pays tlie high tribute of saying that he was “an excellent person, who possessed every talent of a perfect instructor of youth, in a degree which has been rarely found since the days of Quintilian, but was less known in his life time, from that obscure situation to which the caprice of fortune oft condemns the most accomplished characters than his highest merit deserved.” Vide Boswell’s Life of Johnson, v. 4,p. 436, third edition. The incidents in the Life of his son, Joseph Budworlh, (not his Grandson as Boswell states) are so remarkable I that have added his biography as an Appendix.
I have no information as to the reasons which induced my great-grandfather, Richard Budworth, who was born in 1721, to adopt and follow the business of a State Coach Maker, nor have I any account of his early career, but at the age of 56 (July 15th, 1777) the Annual Register for that year records him as elected senior Sheriff of London and Middlesex.
Some years previous to this date I find the first printed mention of his having any relations with Essex in the particulars of an intended sale of Kelvcdon Hall and Advowson, (which sale however never took place) as follows:
“N.B. A Lease of this Advowson was granted in 1765, by the proprietor of this Estate to Richard Budworth, Gentleman, for 99 years ; if Peter Wright, of the Register Office, Chancery Lane, Gentleman, (then aged twentyfour years) Thomas Smith, Gentleman, (since deceased) and Richard Budworth, (son of the Lessee) then aged sixteen, or either of them should so long survive.”
This entry would seem to imply that Richard Budworth had preserved the principles for which he and his family had so much suffered, since he doubtless acted as trustee for Mr. John Wright, of Kelvedon, who as a Roman Catholic, was under legal disabilities in dealing with Church Patronage.
The connection whatever it may originally have been of Richard Budworth with Essex was undoubtedly strengthened by the marriage of jits son, afterwards successor of John Cleeve, Rector of High Laver, with Mary Velley, grand-daughter of Alexander Cleeve.
In 1791 Richard Budworth died, and was buried in Pinner Church. Lysons in his Environs of London, vol. 2, p. 585 says, « On a South pillar of the Nave is the “Monument of Mr. Richard Budworth, 1791.” This Monument exists in 1875, and the inscription is as follows:
” Near this place lie the remains of Mr. Richard Budworth of Lftmba Conduit Street, London, who died March 20th, 1791, aged 70 years, “In the same vault lies Susannah his beloved wife, daughter^of Mr. Philip Aldwin of Pinner Marsh, who departed this life September 15th, 1792, aged 82 years.”
So far as I have been able to ascertain, my greatgrandfather had only one son, also Richard, who is alluded to in the Kelvedon document. He was born in 1749, and took his B. A. degree at Christ’s Coll. Camb., in 1771, and M. A. in 1774, At Christ’s College also, his Great-uncle, the Master of B re wood before mentioned had graduated B. A., 1720, M. A, 1726.
He marned in 177 , Mary (only surviving daughter of the Rev. Thomas Velley. Rector of Chipping Ongar and Bobbing worth.) On the death of John Cleeve, Rector of High Laver, he succeeded to that Living, on which he resided until his death, in 1805. Persons living in my time who knew him well, have united in describing him to me as a tall, portly man, an active Magistrate and Clergyman, good natured, hospitable, and a lover of society.
His wife survived him 15 years, living for some time previous to her death, at Abingdon, She died in 1821 and was buried at Kingston Lyle.
My Grandfather had three sons, Richard, Charles, and Philip. Of these only the younger, my Father survived him, the two former dying in 1795, and 1797 respectively, each at the age of 17. My Father was born in 1784, and died in 1861, His brothers had both died of consumption, from which fate he probably only escaped by being taken down for some years at an early age to Penzance. His constitution however did not escape the effects of his early disease, and through life he was incapable of taking the same part in County and Parochial work that his Father had done. He kept terms at Jesus College, Cambridge, but did not proceed to a degree.
In 1809, four years after my Grandmother’s death, he was instituted to the Rectory of High Laver, which had been held for him during the interim, by the Rev. Peter Parker Scott, and in 1811 he married my mother, Elizabeth Darby, daughter of the Rev, John Darby, some time of Bowes, Ongar. She was the eldest of a large family, all of whom are now dead without leaving any issue. She herself died in 1837 suddenly. My Father survived her 24 years, dying in 1861. Both are buried in a vault beneath the communion table, at High Laver, and alter the death of my Father I caused a tablet to be placed on the North side of the Chancel, to their memory, as well as to that of my Aunt, Margaret Darby, a younger sister of my Mother, who after her death resided for nearly twenty-four years with my Father, at High Laver, and predeceased him by a few months in the Spring of 1861 Near to this tablet is placed one erected by my Father to the memory of his own and of his two elder brothers.
In order fo carry down this record to the present time, I must conclude with some mention of myself. Born Dec. 26, 1817,1 was the youngest of several children, the remainder of whom died in their infancy. I was educated at a private* tutor’s, the Rev, Edward Lindsell, of Broom Hall, Biggleswade, who (1875) is still alive.* In 1835 I commenced residence at Jesus College Cambridge, taking the degree of B. A. in 1839, and that of M. A. in 1843.
After I left Cambridge I kept terms at the Inner Temple, but was not called to the Bar, and in 1840 I was an unsuccessful Candidate for the representation in Parliament for the Borough of Sandwich. Perhaps I may ascribe to this disappointment my adoption for some years of a life of travel, since from this time up to 1848 I spent the larger portion on the Continent ot Europe, and in many parts of Asia and Africa.
Of these eight years which have left to me so many interesting and pleasant recollections, and brought me face to face with many of the persons and incidents which occupied public attention during that time, I will say nothing further here the rather that during the whole of my travels I kept journals, still in existence, from which a record of that part of my life is to be obtained.
I was in the East, in 1848, when the outbreak of the French Revolution and the unsettled state of the rest of Europe, induced me to return to England, but 1 should probably have resumed my wandering life had I not soon afterwards become acquainted with Blanche Trimmer, (youngest daughter of Capt. Thomas Trimmer, R, N.,) whom I married in 1850. After our marriage we traveled for upwards of a year in France, Italy, and Germany, and on our return to England came to reside at Ongar, until in 1854 a lease existing of Greensted Hall having expired, we came into residence there.
In 1862 the greatest calamity of my life occurred in the death of my wife, to whose great worth, talents, and amiability of character I desire here to record my loving testimony.
In 1866 I married Annie Emily, daughter of Mr. David Thomas, then of the Priory, now of tlie Wr atton House, Brecon.
My life has been of a varied and interesting character, and I am thankful to own that with one great exception it has so far been as pleasant as the fitful chances of human existence generally permit. Among many Nations whose languages and customs I have studied, 1 have seen the brighter and the darker sides of great events, and been a witness of triumphs and pageants, as well as of war and revolt, and if l did not attain to taking an active part in the legislature of my Country, 1 have at least done so for many years in that of my County.
Having thus completed my record of the owners of Greensted up to the present time, I will conclude with the hope that whichever of my children may succeed me here, will do his duty by me as I have done by my predecessors, and not only continue but, if it is possible to arrive at earlier facts which I have failed in ascertaining, amplify this chronicle.
Philip Henry Cresswell Dutton, born 1862.
Richard Thomas Dutton, born 1867.
Charles Edward Dutton, born 1869.
David Philip Dutton, born 1871.
Anne Blanche Dutton, born 1873.